Asthma is often a lifelong disease characterized by attacks of breathlessness due to narrowing of the airways. The narrowing is because of muscular bronchial tubes pulling together.
In asthma, airways are more sensitive than normal and many things can provoke a bout with the contraction of muscular. You could say that the bronchial tubes are hyperactive. Moreover, there is an inflammation (betændelsesreaktion without bacteria) of the airways, and this causes swelling of the bronchial mucous membrane, thus further narrowing.
Asthma is often linked with Allergy . Up to 80% of children with asthma also suffer from allergies such as pollen, dust mites and animal hair. Other causes that can trigger an asthma attack is in the upper respiratory tract infections, physical exercise, stress, smoke, cold air and pollution.
Asthma seen frequently in all age groups, but is most frequently in children. Up to half of children with asthma are, however, healthy or symptom associated with puberty. In the adult population suffer from up to 5% of asthma. Arvelighed play a role in the development of asthma, and astmabørn with asthma or asthma-related diseases (eg. astmaeksem ) In the family has less likely to grow from the disease in puberty.
Symptoms of asthma
People with asthma have as a normal lung function between anfaldene. The long-term asthma be seen, however, a progressive deterioration of lung function (see later). The following symptoms appear, therefore, attacks. The most typically seen as mentioned by example. physical effort or in connection with an upper respiratory tract infection. Typical of asthma is also that anfaldene often comes late at night or early in the morning. The typical seizures goods from minutes to hours.
- Hovedsymptomet is shortness of breath.
- Hvæsende and pibende breathing. Especially during udåndingen and this is often extended.
- The difficult bout seen rapid breathing and heart rate and anxiety caused by åndenøden.
- Untreated can lead to severe attacks blurred awareness and ultimately vejrtrækningsstop.
If asthma is allergic condition, they talk about astraksreaktionand asenreaktion.
Straksreaktionen is an asthma attack, seen shortly after that we have inhaled the allergen (the thing that triggers the attack, for example. Pollen or dust which ends quickly.
A late reaction can be seen a few hours that might last several days. Therefore, it is important if you suffer from allergic asthma condition, to ensure that treatment within senreaktionen provide.
Precautions and diagnosis
In asthma, it is primarily to avoid deterioration and thus attacks that are unpleasant and can be dangerous. Prevention in the form of medicine is therefore important to respect (see Treatment). Additionally, we must attempt to avoid attack-provoking things, such as. cold air and smoke-filled rooms. Slow training can prevent attacks. By induced allergic asthma is to avoid the triggering allergen.
The diagnosis made on sygehistorien with the characteristic attacks of breathlessness. Also made an examination that most often will show normal lung function between anfaldene and reduced lung function in anfaldene. Lungefunktionen measured, inter alia, by a so-calledpeak flow measurement, Which breathes in a small device that measures the maximum udåndingshastighed. Measuring the peak flow over a short period of time in the home. By asthma varies udåndingshastigheden, and if døgnvariationen is more than 20%, said Monday that it has asthma.
If you suspect that asthma is allergic condition, have to make a allergologisk explanation of the blood samples and a priktest. By priktesten injected small quantities of the most common airborne allergens superficially in the skin, and you look, if you turn out with redness and swelling.
Treatment of asthma
Treatment of asthma aims to reduce inflammationen in the airways, thereby reducing the enforcement, so luftskiftet improved, and to lift together-trækningen of bronkiemuskulaturen. Asthma can be seen in many degrees in different people, and asthma can vary in severity of the individual. You can have periods of many symptoms and so in other periods to be completely asymptomatic. Prevention treatment is a part of the asthma-treatment.
Inflammationen of the airways treated by steroid (binyrebarkhormon), which also dampens the bronchial hyperreaktivitet and is effective in allergic asthma condition. The acute phase does not call for the slow-acting steroids. They thus have a first full power after a week of treatment and therefore most often used for preventive treatment.
Steriods are available as a treatment for asthma, mostly as an inhalor. in spray or powder form for inhalation. In cases of severe asthma attacks are also used steroid, but here in the form of tabletbehandling that not only works locally. Steroids have many side effects and is only used as a last resort.
To counteract the narrowing of the bronchial tubes are used bronkieudvidende medicine, so-called beta2-agonists.They are the classic treatment of asthma attacks. The works by the musculature of the >bronchial tubes to relax, and thereby expand the bronchial tubes. They set up like steroids also bronchial hyperreaktivitet. Beta2-agonists are available both as a short-term and long lasting. The short available as inhalationspræparater. The work already after a few minutes and have maximum impact during an hour. They are used primarily as emergency treatment and preventive treatment of mild asthma. The langti
There are several types of drugs for asthma, but the above is hovedbehandlingen. In recent years, Monday started to produce inhalers that contain both steroid and beta2-agonists.
In cases of serious asthma attacks should immediately consult a doctor, where the acute treatment is oxygen and kortidsvirkende beta2-agonists.
Most of asthma symptoms quickly learn to know, and can treat themselves with the inhalation in the event of attack. In addition, trained people to often to measure the peak flow at home, to assess the disease. The treatment of an asthma attack is the same, regardless of whether they are allergic subject to seizures or not.
Select and complications
Asthma is a chronic or lifelong disease, but almost half of all children with asthma will be referred symptoms as adults.
Mentioned during treatment there is a lot of variation on how much the asthma is affecting them. Some have only a few weekly bout of mild degree, while other daily plagued by severe attacks and nocturnal shortness of breath.
Asthma can be a serious illness, and if we fail treatment under heavy attack, the muscular, used for breathing is exhausted and this may end breathing and end in death. Among older asthma is associated with an increased mortality. The vast majority live, however, a completely normal life, and with the right treatment can be severe bout for the most part avoided.